One of the most classic story structures is the Hero's Journey, also known as the Monomyth. This structure was identified by Joseph Campbell in his book, The Hero With a Thousand Faces. Many classic stories (although far from all of them) follow this structure, and it's useful as both a reader and a writer to be familiar with it. This simple infographic by novel-software.com is a good illustration of the nine basic elements.
Write If You Dare.
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